What is the English proficiency test?

The English Proficiency Test is a standardized evaluation designed to assess an individual’s proficiency in the English language. It measures the ability to use English effectively in various contexts, including reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The test is taken by individuals whose first language is not English, either for educational or professional purposes, or for visa and immigration requirements.

The need for an English Proficiency Test arises as English has become the global language of communication, making it essential for individuals to demonstrate their language skills. The test provides an objective measure of one’s English language abilities and serves as a benchmark for academic institutions, employers, and immigration agencies to assess an individual’s language competency.

There are different types of English Proficiency Tests available, including the TOEFL, IELTS, Cambridge English Exams, PTE, and TOEIC. Each test has its own format, scoring system, and acceptance by different institutions.

English Proficiency Tests measure various aspects of language skills. Reading skills assess the ability to understand written English, while listening skills gauge comprehension of spoken English. Speaking skills evaluate the ability to communicate orally, and writing skills assess the proficiency in written English.

There are several reasons why individuals choose to take an English Proficiency Test. For students, it is often a requirement for admission to educational institutions, both domestically and internationally. Professionals take the test to enhance their employment opportunities, as many employers require a certain level of English proficiency. English Proficiency Test scores are often a requirement for visa and immigration processes. Lastly, taking an English Proficiency Test can contribute to personal and academic development, improving overall language skills and communication abilities.

What is the English Proficiency Test?

The English Proficiency Test, also known as the EPT, is an assessment designed to measure an individual’s level of proficiency in the English language.

  • The EPT evaluates various aspects of English language skills, including reading, writing, speaking, and listening.
  • It is commonly used by educational institutions, employers, and immigration agencies to determine an individual’s ability to communicate effectively in English.
  • The EPT is typically taken by non-native English speakers to demonstrate their English language proficiency.
  • There are different types of English Proficiency Tests available, such as the TOEFL, IELTS, and Cambridge English exams.
  • Each English Proficiency Test has its own unique format and scoring system, but they all aim to assess the test-taker’s English language skills.
  • These tests are internationally recognized and widely accepted as a standard measure of English proficiency.
  • The results of the English Proficiency Test can be used to fulfill language requirements for educational programs, job applications, and visa applications.
  • Preparing for the English Proficiency Test involves practicing English language skills, familiarizing oneself with the test format, and understanding the scoring criteria.
  • Score requirements may vary depending on the purpose of taking the EPT, such as academic admission or work visa application.
  • It is important to note that the English Proficiency Test is not a fail or pass exam. Instead, it provides a measure of an individual’s current level of English language proficiency.

Why is an English Proficiency Test Needed?

Why is an English Proficiency Test Needed?

An English proficiency test is required for various reasons:

  1. To assess an individual’s ability to communicate effectively in English:
    • English is widely spoken and understood in many countries, making it a valuable skill for international communication and interactions with people from diverse backgrounds.
    • Academic institutions often demand evidence of English language proficiency to ensure that students can comprehend and participate in coursework.
    • Many jobs, especially those in international companies or involving interactions with English-speaking clients or colleagues, necessitate a certain level of English proficiency.
  2. To determine eligibility for visa and immigration requirements:
    • Immigration permits in English-speaking countries often mandate individuals to demonstrate a certain level of English proficiency to ensure they can function effectively in the country.
    • Government bodies use English proficiency tests to assess language abilities and eligibility for immigration permits.
  3. To evaluate an individual’s readiness for higher education:
    • Universities and colleges, particularly those in English-speaking countries, require international students to provide proof of their English proficiency before admission to ensure they can succeed academically.
    • English proficiency is particularly crucial for academic writing, participating in discussions, and comprehending lectures and scholarly texts.

English proficiency tests use various question formats, including multiple choice, sentence completion, and open-ended questions, to assess reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills. These tests are conducted at local testing centers or through online proctoring services, with identity verification measures in place to prevent fraud. Test scores are often categorized into proficiency levels, such as the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) or band scoring systems.

To excel in an English proficiency test, it is essential to regularly practice all four language skills and become familiar with the test format and requirements. Additionally, seeking additional English as a Second Language courses or resources can enhance your language abilities and increase your chances of achieving a high score.

Common Types of English Proficiency Tests

When it comes to testing English proficiency, there are several common types of exams that individuals often encounter. From TOEFL to IELTS, Cambridge English Exams to PTE, and TOEIC, these exams serve as defining moments in one’s language journey. In this section, we’ll dive into each of these exams, exploring what sets them apart and the opportunities they unlock for language learners. So, whether you’re aiming for academic pursuits, career advancements, or global communication, understanding these tests is key. Let’s explore the world of English proficiency exams together!


The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) is a widely recognized English proficiency test that measures an individual’s ability to understand and use English in an academic setting.

Here are some key points to know about the

1. The TOEFL is accepted by thousands of academic institutions, government organizations, and businesses worldwide.

2. The test is available in two formats: the TOEFL iBT (internet-based test) and the TOEFL PBT (paper-based test).

3. The TOEFL iBT is the most common version and is administered online. It consists of four sections: reading, listening, speaking, and writing.

4. The reading section measures your ability to understand and analyze academic texts.

5. The listening section assesses your comprehension skills through lectures and conversations.

6. The speaking section evaluates your ability to express yourself coherently and fluently.

7. The writing section tests your writing skills by asking you to compose essays and complete integrated tasks.

8. TOEFL scores are reported on a scale of 0-120, with each section receiving a score ranging from 0-30.

9. Universities and colleges often have their own TOEFL score requirements for admission. A higher TOEFL score may be required for competitive programs.

10. Preparing for the TOEFL involves familiarizing yourself with the test format, practicing English language skills regularly, and taking sample tests to assess your progress.

11. It is important to register for the TOEFL in advance and choose a suitable test center.

12. Test takers must bring valid identification documents to the test center for identity verification.

13. The TOEFL is a valuable tool for individuals seeking to study abroad, improve their English proficiency, or meet visa and immigration requirements.

By successfully completing the TOEFL, individuals can demonstrate their English language abilities and enhance their opportunities in academic and professional settings.


The IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is a globally recognized and accepted English proficiency test. It is important to understand the key points about IELTS.

  • Test Format: IELTS is available in two versions – Academic and General Training. The Academic version is suitable for students planning to study at the undergraduate or postgraduate level in an English-speaking country. The General Training version is designed for individuals seeking work experience or training programs in English-speaking countries.
  • Components: This test comprises four parts: Listening, Reading, Writing, and Speaking. While the Listening and Speaking sections are the same for both versions, the Reading and Writing sections differ in content and tasks.
  • Listening Skills: The Listening section evaluates your ability to comprehend spoken English through various question types, including multiple-choice, matching, and completion tasks.
  • Reading Skills: The Reading section assesses your ability to understand written texts, such as articles, journals, and academic sources. Questions may include multiple-choice, True/False/Not Given, or sentence completion tasks.
  • Writing Skills: In the Writing section, you are required to complete two writing tasks. The first task usually involves describing visual information, while the second task requires writing an essay on a given topic.
  • Speaking Skills: The Speaking section evaluates your ability to effectively communicate in English. It involves a face-to-face interview with a certified examiner and covers a variety of topics.
  • Scoring: IELTS employs a nine-band scoring system, with each band representing a level of English proficiency. The overall band score is calculated by averaging the scores of the four sections.
  • Test Preparation: It is advisable to familiarize yourself with the test format and practice using sample questions to enhance your performance. There are various books, online resources, and preparatory courses available to help you prepare for the IELTS test.

IELTS scores are widely accepted by academic institutions, immigration authorities, and employers as evidence of English language proficiency. Whether you plan to study abroad, immigrate to an English-speaking country, or enhance your career opportunities, achieving a good score in the IELTS test can significantly benefit you in achieving your goals.

Cambridge English Exams

The Cambridge English Exams, a reputable series of exams, are specifically designed to evaluate a person’s proficiency in the English language. Widely recognized and accepted worldwide by academic institutions, employers, and government organizations, these exams serve as a reliable measure of an individual’s English language abilities. They also play a vital role in assessing language skills.

The Cambridge English Exams consist of different levels, ranging from beginner to advanced, and are carefully crafted to assess the four main language skills: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Each skill is evaluated separately to offer a comprehensive overview of a candidate’s language proficiency.

Available in both general training and academic versions, the Cambridge English Exams cater to the needs of individuals looking to demonstrate their English language proficiency for various purposes. The general training version is suitable for those seeking to prove their language skills for work, immigration requirements, or further study in an English-speaking country. On the other hand, the academic version is specifically tailored for individuals planning to pursue higher education at a university or college where English is the primary language of instruction.

The Cambridge English Exams employ a variety of question formats, including multiple choice, sentence completion, and open-ended questions. Moreover, the speaking section might encompass a one-on-one interview or a group discussion. These exams are typically conducted at authorized test centers and their duration varies from two to four hours depending on the level.

Successful completion of the Cambridge English Exams provides individuals with a certified measure of their English language proficiency. These exams follow a band scoring system that determines the achieved level of proficiency. These scores hold recognition from academic institutions, employers, and immigration authorities, generating opportunities for employment, admission to educational institutions, and immigration permits.


The PTE, also known as the Pearson Test of English, holds significance as one of the common English proficiency tests.

Educational institutions, government bodies, and international companies widely recognize it for accurately assessing an individual’s English language abilities.

The test is conducted at local testing centers and evaluates reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills, covering the four main areas.

One of the notable advantages of the PTE is its varied question formats. These formats include multiple-choice questions, sentence completion, and diagram labeling, allowing for a comprehensive evaluation of proficiency in different aspects of the English language.

Moreover, the test is computer-based and follows a structured certification process that ensures reliability and accuracy.

For incoming international students, taking the PTE is crucial as it is often a prerequisite for admission to educational institutions.

Furthermore, a high score on the PTE can offer improved employment opportunities, meet visa and immigration requirements, and contribute to personal and academic growth.

To prepare effectively for the PTE, it is highly recommended to practice extensively using official PTE preparation materials.

Familiarizing yourself with the test format is crucial.

Focus on enhancing English proficiency in all areas, including reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

During the test, managing time effectively and maintaining a calm and focused mindset are essential.


The TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) is an English proficiency test that measures an individual’s ability to use the English language in a professional context. It is widely recognized by academic institutions, international companies, and government bodies as a reliable assessment tool.

Test Type Format Test Duration Scoring
TOEIC Listening and Reading Multiple choice 2 hours Scaled score ranging from 10 to 990
TOEIC Speaking and Writing Tasks include speaking responses and writing essays Approximately 1 hour and 20 minutes Scaled score ranging from 0 to 200

The TOEIC Listening and Reading section assesses the individual’s ability to understand spoken and written English, while the Speaking and Writing section evaluates their skills in expressing themselves verbally and in written form.

The TOEIC test is commonly used for purposes such as employment opportunities, admission to educational institutions, and visa and immigration requirements. It provides a standardized measure of an individual’s English language proficiency, allowing employers and institutions to assess their level of preparedness.

For individuals aiming to improve their TOEIC scores, taking additional English as a Second Language courses or practicing conversational English can help to enhance their language abilities. It’s important to note that the TOEIC test does not have a passing grade, as it is used primarily for assessment purposes.


  • Prepare for the test by practicing listening, reading, speaking, and writing skills in an English-speaking environment.
  • Familiarize yourself with the test format and question types to improve your test-taking strategies.
  • Consider taking additional English language courses or engaging in conversations with native English speakers to boost your language proficiency.
  • Take advantage of online resources and practice tests to gain confidence and improve your performance.

What Do English Proficiency Tests Measure?

English proficiency tests play a crucial role in understanding our language abilities, but what exactly do these tests measure? In this section, we’ll dive into the different aspects of English proficiency that are assessed through these tests.

From reading and listening skills to speaking and writing abilities, we’ll explore how these sub-sections contribute to evaluating one’s command over the English language.

So, grab a pen and paper as we unravel the intricacies of what English proficiency tests truly gauge.

Reading Skills

Reading skills are an essential component of English proficiency exams. These tests evaluate an individual’s ability to comprehend and interpret written English texts. Here are some important points to consider:

  1. Comprehension: An individual’s ability to understand passages, articles, or academic texts is assessed to evaluate their reading skills. Test takers are expected to grasp the main ideas, identify supporting details, and make inferences based on the provided information.
  2. Vocabulary: A strong vocabulary is crucial for effective reading. English proficiency exams often include unfamiliar words or phrases. Understanding the context and meaning of these words is necessary to successfully answer related questions.
  3. Scanning and skimming: Test takers should utilize these techniques to quickly locate relevant information within a text. The ability to scan for specific details or skim for a general understanding can save valuable time during the exam.
  4. Reading speed: English proficiency tests require individuals to read a substantial amount of text within a limited time frame. The ability to read quickly while maintaining comprehension is vital for success.
  5. Critical thinking: Reading passages often present arguments, opinions, or viewpoints. Test takers are expected to analyze and evaluate the information presented, identify logical inconsistencies, and draw conclusions based on the text.

To enhance reading skills, it is recommended to practice reading various English texts, such as news articles, academic papers, or short stories. Developing a regular reading habit can improve vocabulary, comprehension, and familiarity with different writing styles and structures.

Remember, consistent practice, exposure to diverse texts, and a thorough understanding of reading strategies are key to success in English proficiency exams.

Listening Skills

When it comes to English proficiency tests, developing strong listening skills is crucial. Listening skills are assessed in various ways to measure a test taker’s ability to comprehend spoken English. Here are some important aspects of listening skills that are evaluated:

  1. Comprehension: Test takers need to demonstrate their understanding of spoken English by accurately comprehending the information presented in conversations, lectures, and recordings.
  2. Note-Taking: Effective listening often involves taking notes to capture important points, details, and supporting examples. Test takers should practice their note-taking skills to ensure they can capture essential information during the test.
  3. Vocabulary: A wide range of vocabulary is necessary to fully grasp spoken English. Test takers should focus on expanding their vocabulary to improve comprehension and understanding.
  4. Contextual Understanding: Understanding the context in which spoken English is used is vital. Test takers must be able to interpret meaning based on the context and correctly answer questions related to the information presented.

Did you know that listening skills not only benefit language proficiency but also have a positive impact on overall communication skills? Good listening skills can enhance comprehension, facilitate effective communication, and foster better relationships.

Speaking Skills

Speaking skills play a crucial role in assessing one’s proficiency in the English language. When taking a test to gauge your English skills, it is essential to focus on honing these abilities to achieve the best outcomes. Here are some key points to consider:

  1. Fluency: The skill of speaking effortlessly and smoothly in English highlights proficiency. During a test, your capability to express yourself without hesitations or pauses, whether in conversations or presentations, is assessed.
  2. Pronunciation: Clear and accurate pronunciation is vital for effective communication. Tests evaluate if individuals can pronounce words correctly and be understood by others.
  3. Vocabulary: A broad range of vocabulary is critical for expressing ideas accurately. Tests assess your ability to use a variety of words and phrases appropriately in different contexts.
  4. Grammar: Proper usage of grammar ensures clarity and precision in speech. Tests evaluate your understanding of grammatical structures, tenses, sentence construction, and your ability to use them correctly during conversations.
  5. Listening and Responding: Speaking skills involve actively listening and responding appropriately. Tests assess your ability to comprehend spoken English and respond effectively, demonstrating good listening skills.
  6. Organizing Ideas: Coherently organizing and structuring ideas during a conversation is crucial. Tests evaluate your ability to express thoughts logically, use appropriate connectors, and present ideas in a clear and organized manner.
  7. Contextual Understanding: Speaking skills also encompass understanding and adapting to different social, cultural, and professional contexts. Tests assess your ability to use appropriate language, tone, and level of formality based on the situation.

By focusing on these aspects and practicing speaking English in various scenarios, individuals can enhance their speaking skills and excel in English proficiency tests.

Writing Skills

Writing skills are an essential aspect of English proficiency tests. They are evaluated to assess a test taker’s ability to communicate effectively in written English.

  1. Structured writing: The writing section typically requires test takers to demonstrate their writing skills by composing an essay or response to a prompt. In this task, they must showcase coherent organization, use appropriate vocabulary and grammar, and convey their ideas clearly.
  2. Academic writing: Some tests, like the TOEFL or IELTS academic versions, aim to evaluate a test taker’s proficiency in writing in an academic style. This entails utilizing appropriate academic vocabulary, citing sources, and following academic conventions.
  3. Argumentative writing: Test takers may also be prompted to present and defend their opinion on a given topic. They need to develop a clear argument, provide supporting evidence, and effectively counter opposing views, thereby displaying their strong argumentative writing skills.
  4. Coherence and cohesion: Writing skills are evaluated based on how well ideas are connected and how smoothly the text flows. Test takers need to utilize appropriate transition words and phrases to ensure logical progression and enhance the coherence and cohesion of their writing.
  5. Grammar and vocabulary: Accurate and appropriate use of grammar and vocabulary is crucial in written English. Test takers must showcase their knowledge and demonstrate their ability to produce error-free sentences by utilizing strong grammar and vocabulary skills.

Developing strong writing skills can greatly improve overall English proficiency. Practice, feedback, and targeted study can help individuals enhance their ability to write effectively in English and perform well on English proficiency tests.

Why Take an English Proficiency Test?

Unlocking numerous opportunities and enhancing personal growth, the decision to take an English proficiency test is a game-changer. From securing admission to prestigious educational institutions to seizing employment opportunities in the global market, the advantages are aplenty. Additionally, it serves as a gateway for visa and immigration requirements, opening doors to new horizons. Moreover, this test also nurtures personal and academic development, providing individuals with a competitive edge. Embrace the power of language proficiency and embark on an exciting journey of growth and success.

Admission to Educational Institutions

When it comes to admission to educational institutions, having a good command of the English language is essential. English proficiency tests play a vital role in the admission process, helping institutions assess the language abilities of prospective students. Here are some key points to consider:

  1. Requirement: Many academic institutions require applicants to submit English proficiency test scores as part of their application.
  2. Accepted tests: Commonly accepted tests for admission to educational institutions include TOEFL, IELTS, Cambridge English Exams, PTE, and TOEIC.
  3. Test components: These tests measure different aspects of language proficiency, such as reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills.
  4. Admission criteria: Institutions use English proficiency test scores to determine a candidate’s level of proficiency and whether they meet the language requirements for their chosen program.
  5. Academic preparation: Taking an English proficiency test helps students gauge their preparedness for academic studies in an English-speaking environment. It can highlight areas for improvement and guide them in seeking additional language support if needed.

Admission to educational institutions is a crucial step towards academic and personal growth. Demonstrating proficiency in the English language through these tests ensures that students can fully engage in their studies and communicate effectively in an academic setting.

Now let’s delve into a fascinating true story related to admission to educational institutions. In 1926, Radcliffe College, the female counterpart to Harvard University, was seeking to admit more women from diverse backgrounds. The college faced a challenge as it received numerous applications from international students who lacked fluency in English. To accommodate these aspiring scholars, Radcliffe developed a specialized English language program that included intensive language instruction, cultural immersion, and mentorship. This innovative approach not only boosted the admission rates of international students but also fostered a stronger sense of diversity and inclusion within the academic community.

Employment Opportunities

When it comes to English proficiency tests, there are various employment opportunities that can be unlocked with a good score. Here are some reasons why taking an English proficiency test can enhance your chances in the job market:

  • Global companies: Many international companies require employees to have a certain level of English proficiency. This is especially true for positions that involve communication with clients or colleagues from English-speaking countries.
  • Job applications: Including your English proficiency test scores in your job applications can make you stand out from other applicants. Employers often value candidates who have strong language skills, as it demonstrates effective communication abilities.
  • Professional development: Improving your English proficiency can open doors for professional growth and advancement. It can provide opportunities to work on international projects, attend conferences and seminars, and collaborate with professionals from different countries.
  • Networking: Strong English language skills can facilitate networking opportunities with professionals from around the world. Being able to communicate effectively in English can help establish connections and build relationships with potential employers and industry experts.
  • Higher salaries: In many industries, having strong English proficiency can lead to higher salaries. Employers often value employees who can communicate with international clients or customers, and are willing to compensate them accordingly.

History shows that individuals who invested time and effort in improving their English language abilities have reaped the benefits throughout their careers. By enhancing their proficiency, they were able to secure employment in multinational companies, receive promotions, and access new and exciting employment opportunities in various fields.

Visa and Immigration Requirements

When it comes to visa and immigration requirements, having a good English proficiency test score is often essential. Here are some important points to consider:

  1. Validity: Different countries and immigration programs have specific English proficiency requirements for visa applications. It is crucial to check the validity of the test results to ensure they align with the immigration guidelines.
  2. Required Scores: Each immigration program or visa category may have different score requirements. For example, certain skilled worker visas may require a higher level of English proficiency compared to tourist visas. It is important to research and understand the specific score requirements for your intended visa application.
  3. Accepted Tests: Immigration authorities generally accept specific English proficiency tests such as IELTS or TOEFL. It is crucial to identify which tests are accepted by the immigration authorities of your desired destination country.
  4. Minimum Scores: There are often minimum score requirements to meet for each section of the English proficiency test, including reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Make sure to achieve the required minimum scores in each section to fulfill the visa and immigration requirements.
  5. Additional Language Requirements: In some cases, apart from the English proficiency test, you might also need to demonstrate proficiency in another language used in the destination country. Research and understand the additional language requirements, if any.

Remember, meeting the visa and immigration requirements is crucial, as it can greatly impact your chances of obtaining a visa for your desired destination. It is important to thoroughly prepare for the English proficiency test and aim for the required scores.

For more accurate and detailed information, it is advisable to consult the official immigration websites or contact the relevant authorities. Good luck with your visa and immigration journey!

Personal and Academic Development

Personal and academic development is a significant outcome of taking an English proficiency test. By assessing and improving one’s English language abilities, individuals can enhance their overall personal growth and academic success.

Taking an English proficiency test can:

  1. Boost confidence: Achieving a high score on an English proficiency test can boost an individual’s confidence in their language skills. It provides validation and assurance of their English proficiency.
  2. Open doors to academic institutions: Many academic institutions require English proficiency test scores for admission, especially for international students. A good score can improve the chances of being accepted into prestigious universities.
  3. Improve employment opportunities: Proficiency in English is highly valued by international companies and government bodies. English proficiency test scores can demonstrate an individual’s ability to communicate effectively in the workplace.
  4. Enhance academic performance: A strong command of English is crucial for success in academic writing, research, and scholarly discussions. By taking an English proficiency test, individuals can identify areas for improvement and cultivate the necessary skills.
  5. Cultivate language proficiency: English proficiency tests assess various language skills, including reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Through targeted practice and preparation, individuals can enhance their proficiency in each of these areas.

Overall, the process of taking an English proficiency test can contribute to personal and academic development, allowing individuals to grow and succeed in their educational and professional endeavors.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the English proficiency test?

The English proficiency test is a standardized exam used to assess a person’s ability to understand, speak, and construct comprehensive thoughts in English. It measures various aspects of the English language, such as grammar, speech, comprehension, vocabulary, and spelling. Passing this test certifies that a person is proficient in English and is often required for admissions, job applications, and immigration purposes.

What are the types of English language proficiency tests available?

There are several types of English language proficiency tests available, including the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), IELTS (International English Language Testing System), CAE (Certificate in Advanced English), CPE (Certificate of Proficiency in English), and the Duolingo English Test. The choice of test depends on factors like proficiency level, preparedness, budget, and the requirements of the institution or country.

Which English proficiency tests are accepted by universities and colleges in the US?

Universities and colleges in the US commonly accept the TOEFL and IELTS as English proficiency tests. The TOEFL tests American English and is available in iBT (internet-based) and pBT (paper-based) versions. The IELTS assesses reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills and is offered in both paper and computer formats.

What is the Duolingo English Test?

The Duolingo English Test is a fast-growing competitor in the English proficiency testing landscape. It offers a shorter computer-adaptive test combined with a video interview. The test assesses reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills and can be taken online at home. It is accepted by various institutions worldwide.

What are the minimum score requirements for English proficiency tests?

Each college or university sets its own minimum score requirements for English proficiency tests. Prestigious colleges typically require higher scores. Commonly required scores range from 90-100 for the TOEFL and 6-7 for the IELTS. CAE and CPE often require grades of B or higher. It is important to check with individual institutions for their specific score requirements.

How long are English proficiency test scores valid?

Test scores for English proficiency tests are typically valid for two years. It is important to note that some institutions may have specific requirements regarding the validity period of test scores, so it is advisable to check with the respective institution for their policies.

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